The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 was the point at which both the US and the USSR backed down from Cold War confrontation, rather than fight a devastating nuclear war. This study presents the information we learned when KGB files were published after the fall of the USSR in the early 1990s. As bad as the crisis seemed in 1962, the reality was much worse. Ballistic missiles and small-yield battlefield missiles with nuclear warheads were already active in Cuba when gung-ho Pentagon generals insisted that we must fight. Hard line Politburo members in Moscow were also pushing for a battle. Now that we have all the information it is clear that Kennedy and Khrushchev really did save the world.